So, Either, Neither
Ketiga kata tersebut dipakai apabila kita ingin menyatakan bahwa kita juga melakukan hal yang sama.
A: I am happy today.(Saya senang hari ini)
B: So am I (Saya juga senang)
A: She works in a bank. Ia (perempuan) bekerja di sebuah bank.
B: So does he.. Dia (laki-laki) juga bekerja di sebuah bank.
A: We didn’t go to the cinema yesterda. Kami tidak pergi ke bioskok kemarin.
B: Neither did I. Atau I didn’t either. Saya juga tidak
So + ……+ Subject dipakai pada kalimat positif. Tanda ……. disesuaikan dengan tensesnya atau modal auxiliary nya. Sedangkan Neither + ……. + Subject dipakai pada kalimat negatif.
Perhatikan contoh berikut:
A: John can swim well.
B: So can Mary.
A: Pitra bought a new car.
B: So did I.
Did dipakai karena bought dalam bentuk lampau.
A: We will go to Australia next year.
B: So will they.
A: Jakarta is very beautiful.
B: So is London.
A: I haven’t eaten anything since this morning.
B: Neither has Mary. Atau Mery hasn’t either.
Dalam percakapan masih terdapat banyak siswa yang selalu menggunakan “So am I” untuk semua kalimat.
Dalam informal English yang paling aman dipakai adalah “Me too” untuk kalimat positif dan “Me neither” untuk kalimat negatif.
A: We all had a very good time.
B: Me too.
A: She wasn’t very happy.
B: Me neither.
Punctuation marks are important for both written and spoken English. In written English, the correct usage of these symbols help express the intended meaning of the sentence. In spoken English, punctuation marks denote the pauses and intonations to be used when reading aloud.
Incorrect punctuation can change the meaning of a sentence. The sentences, ‘Women, without her man, is nothing’ and ‘Woman: without her, man is nothing’ is an often used example of how the incorrect use of punctuation marks can alter the meaning a sentence.
Symbols of Punctuation
Some of the commonly used punctuation marks are
Full Stop – (.) Usually used at the end of a sentence.
Question Mark – (?) Usually used at the end of an interrogative sentence to form a question.
Comma – (,) – Usually used to denote a pause in a sentence.
Exclamation Mark – (!) – Used to denote shock, surprise, anger or a raised voice.
Colon and Semi Colon
Apostrophe – (‘) – Used to show possession or for contraction of word.
Punctuation Rules – Avoid these common errors
Punctuation is a very important aspect of writing; good writing presupposes correct punctuation. Incorrect punctuation is the sign of weak writing, or carelessness. But this sort of thing is eminently avoidable, because punctuation is quite simple to master. Here are some basic rules to keep in mind:
1. Every sentence must end with a full stop.
2. Proper nouns (names of people, places, brands, etc, i.e. unique instances of a class) must always be capitalized.
3. When you use opening quotation marks, do not forget to use closing quotation marks at the end of the quoted word or phrase.
4. Quotation marks are when quoting or sometimes to convey irony, not for emphasis; emphasis is conveyed by emboldening or italicization, followed by an exclamation mark.
5. Do not use an apostrophe when you are pluralizing a word. The plural of toy is toys, not toy’s. Apostrophes are used to form contractions (it is = it’s) and indicate possession.
6. The ellipsis, used to indicate variously the intentional omission of a section of text, an unfinished thought, and a trailing off into silence, consists of only 3 dots. It is pointless to add more dots to an ellipsis. This is excessive punctuation, which is in other words incorrect punctuation.
7. As per the rules of British English, any punctuation mark that is not part of a quoted section of text must be placed outside the quotation marks. However, in the case of direct speech, punctuation marks must be enclosed within the quotation marks.
8. Do not link independent clauses with commas. Independent clauses are groupings of words that can stand alone as sentences. For example, in He knew how to drive, that he didn’t do it very often was a matter more nerves, not inability both the parts before and after the comma are full sentences. In such cases, the comma is not the correct punctuation mark of connection. In needs to be replaced with a semi-colon (‘;’). The sentence becomes: He knew how to drive; that he didn’t do it very often was matter of nerves, not inability.
9. Use a comma after the introductory element of a sentence. The introductory element is a word or a phrase that begins a sentence by providing background, or simply modifies it. For example, Honestly I don’t know how I managed to escape is wrong, because the word ‘honestly’ modifies the sentence. Hence, it should be Honestly, I don’t know how I managed to escape.
The full stop or the period (.) is the strongest punctuation in the English language. It indicates, when used at the end of a sentence, a strong pause. Look at the following examples.
1. Let’s go there.
2. I like this laptop.
3. Read this book.
4. I will go home.
This is the most common and obvious use of the full stop but it is also used in some other situations.
1. After abbreviations like etc., a.m., p.m.
2. After words like “Goodbye.” “All right.” “Hi.”
o Goodbye. I will see you soon.
o Hi Amit. How are you?
o All right. Let’s finish this by Thursday.
3. After titles like Mr., Mrs., Dr. etc.
4. After decimal points like:
o The sales fell by 6.3% this week.
o The share market index rose by 5.1% this quarter.
An ellipsis (…) is often used to indicate a pause, an unfinished sentence or when trailing off into silence. It is also a handy tool when you’re quoting and want to omit certain words.
1. He drank and drank…and then drank some more.
2. “At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, …”
A comma is a punctuation used to denote a pause in the sentence. A comma is used to structure a sentence and helps the reader understand the meaning of the sentence.
The following are the most common usages of the comma in the English language.
1. To separate a series of words (nouns, adjectives, verbs or adverbs) in a sentence.
Ramesh, Shravan, Dilip and Radha went for the meeting.
Sheetal is an intelligent, loyal and hardworking employee.
You must complete the assignment honestly, correctly and quickly.
Manish ran, swam and cycled to complete the athletic event.
2. To separate a series of phrases in a sentence.
Amit completed his homework, packed his bags, polished his shoes and went to sleep.
I went to the market, bought the present, got it gift wrapped and came to the birthday party.
3. To separate the parenthetical elements (a part of a sentence that can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence).
M.S. Dhoni, India’s cricket captain, hit a six to win the match.
Vishnu, the headboy of the school, has been absent for the last three days.
4. To separate the quoted parts from the rest of the sentence.
The great leader told the crowd, “I will fast till death until our demands are met.”
“Please go back to your houses,” said the policeman to the crowd.
The question mark (?) is an important part of the English language and was developed sometime around the 18th Century. Like the full stop (.), this punctuation mark is used mainly at the end of an interrogative sentence. Many people use it incorrectly or don’t use it when required. Read this article and you will understand when and how to use the question mark.
The most obvious and common use of the question mark is to end a direct question. Look at the following sentences.
1. Where are you going?
2. What is this?
3. Are you mad?
4. Is this the place?
5. How much is this phone for?
Most people don’t know that the question mark has other uses as well. Let’s take a look.
A. To indicate uncertainty.
1. He lived till 1990(?) and was buried near his house.
2. Gandhiji, 2nd October 1869(?) – 1948, was a great Indian leader.
B. In a series of questions.
1. What? He isn’t coming? When did you speak to him?
2. He’s been hospitalized? Why didn’t you tell me? Is he better now?
3. This is your car? When did you buy this? How much did it cost?
C. To end a tag question (a statement followed by a question).
1. His phone was stolen, wasn’t it?
2. She’s a great painter, isn’t she?s
3. He’s lost his job, hasn’t he?
Many times, people use questions marks even when they’re not required. One such situation would be indirect questions; these do not require a question mark.
1. Rohit asked Nidhi to marry him.
2. The Principal asked him his name.
3. His father wondered whether the car was fine.
Capitalization means using a capital letter (for example, A instead of a). The use of capital letters helps readers read your writing without confusion.
Always capitalize the following:
The first word in a sentence.
• I grew up in India.
• She left a message on my phone.
The pronoun I.
• This country is where I dreamed of.
The first letter of a proper noun (specific name).
• David wants to play soccer with us.
• This letter is from Chang.
• I graduated from the University of New York.
• I like Coca-Cola.
• She likes Godiva chocolates.
The first letter of months, days, and holidays (but not seasons).
• Today is June 8, 2011.
• Susie’s birthday is this Thursday.
• The shops are closed on Easter.
• This summer is going to be very hot.
The first letter of nationalities, religions, races of people, and languages.
• We often eat Italian food.
• I want to master many languages, such as Spanish, Korean, Chinese, and Russian.
• There is one Christian church in my town.
The first letter in a person’s title.
• This is Dr. Simon.
• I got it from Mr. Tom.
Geographic areas: cities, states, countries, mountains, oceans, rivers, etc.
• My destination is Paris, France.
• Hawaii is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.
• The Renaissance began in the 14th century.
• The Qing Dynasty is the last dynasty in China.
The first letter of each major word in the title of a book, movie, article, etc.
• Tolstoy’s War and Peace is my favorite novel.
• I found the article “How to Write a Good Cover Letter” in this magazine.
Correctly write each sentence using proper capitalization
1) i was born in shanghai, china, but grew up in the united states.
2) mrs. ohana gave me the bible.
3) if you walk two more blocks, you will be able to see mt. rocky.
4) my family will have a summer vacation in hawaii.
5) I didn’t want to cook tonight, so I just ordered thai food for dinner.